Scientific References

  1. NHS Digital (2018) ‘Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017’ Available at: Based on 12.8% of 5 to 19 year olds being identified as having a diagnosable mental health condition.
  2. NHS Digital (2017) Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey: Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, England, 2014. Available at: Based on 17.3% of 16-24 year olds being identified as having a CIS-R score of 12 or higher. A CIS-R score of 12 or more is the threshold applied to indicate that a level of CMD symptoms is present so that primary care is warranted.
  3. Kessler RC et al. (2005). ‘Lifetime Prevalence and Age-of-Onset Distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication’.
  4. Office for National Statistics (2017) ‘Deaths registered in England and Wales’ Available at:
  5. NHS Digital (2018) ‘Mental Health of Children and Young People in England, 2017’ Available at: Based on 46.8% of 17 to 19 year olds that were identified as having a diagnosable mental health condition reporting that they had harmed themselves or tried to kill themselves at some point. 
  6. WHO (2003). Caring for children and adolescents with mental disorders: Setting WHO directions. [online] Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: [Accessed 14 Sep. 2015].
  7. Children’s Society (2008) The Good Childhood Inquiry: health research evidence. London: Children’s Society.
  8. Anti-Bullying Alliance. (2017). Prevalence of bullying. Retrieved from
  9. Kessler, R. (2010) ‘Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys’ British Journal of Psychiatry 197(5): 378–385.
  10. Mehta, D. et al. (2013) ‘Childhood maltreatment is associated with distinct genomic and epigenetic profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder’ Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(20): 8302–8307:
  11. National Audit Office (2018) ‘Improving children and young people’s mental health services’. Available at: 
  12.  s/ae-attendances-by-young-people-with-psychiatric-conditions-almost-doubled-in-five-years-new-figures/ Original written answer available at:
  13. Department for Education (2019) ‘State of the Nation 2019: Children and Young People’s Wellbeing’. Available at:
  14. Department for Education (2018) ‘Mental health and wellbeing provision in schools’ Available at
  15. The Department for Health ‘ Key Findings from the Professionals’ Engagement Exercise’ Available at:
  16. (2015) “Mindfulness Exercises Improve Kids’ Math Scores
  17. Nbcnews (2014) San Francisco Schools Transformed by the Power of Meditation
  18. Jankowski, Tomasz & Holas, Pawel. (2014). Metacognitive model of mindfulness. Consciousness and cognition. 28C. 64-80. 10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.005. 
  19. Elkins-Brown, Nathaniel & Teper, Rimma & Inzlicht, Michael. (2017). How Mindfulness Enhances Self-Control. 10.4324/9781315627700-5. 
  20. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 10, 144–156.
  21. Department for Education (2011). The Framework for the National Curriculum. A Report by the Expert Panel for the National Curriculum review. London: Department for Education.
  22. Education Endowment Foundation (2015). Education Endowment Foundation. Available at: 
  23. Pediatrics (2016) ‘ School-Based Mindfulness Instruction’. Available at:
  24. Abenavoli, Rachel & Jennings, Patricia & Harris, Alexis & Greenberg, Mark & Katz, Deirdre. (2013). The protective effects of mindfulness against burnout among educators. The Psychology of Education Review,. ISSN 0262-4087. 
  25. Woollett, K., & Maguire, E. A. (2011). Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes. Current biology : CB, 21(24), 2109–2114.
  26. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of clinical psychology, 62(3), 373-386.
  27. Costello, E., & Lawler, M. (2014). An exploratory study of the effects of mindfulness on perceived levels of stress among school-children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. International Journal of Emotional Education, 6(2), 21.
  28. Jared T. Ramsburg, Robert J. Youmans. Meditation in the Higher-Education Classroom: Meditation Training Improves Student Knowledge Retention during Lectures. Mindfulness, 2013; DOI: 10.1007/s12671-013-0199-5
  29. Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lawlor, M. S. (2010). The effects of a mindfulness-based education program on pre-and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1(3), 137-151.
  30. Hanley, Adam & H. Palejwala, Mohammed & T. Hanley, Robert & Canto, Angela & Garland, Eric. (2015). A failure in mind: Dispositional mindfulness and positive reappraisal as predictors of academic self-efficacy following failure. Personality and Individual Differences. 86. 332-337. 10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.033.
  31. Gouda, S., Luong, M. T., Schmidt, S., & Bauer, J. (2016). Students and teachers benefit from Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in a school-embedded pilot study. Frontiers in psychology, 7.
  32. Basharat Raza, Muhammad Ali, Khalida Naseem, Abdul Moeed, Jamil Ahmed, Muhammad Hamid, Sebastian Aparicio. (2018) Impact of trait mindfulness on job satisfaction and turnover intentions: Mediating role of work–family balance and moderating role of work–family conflict. Cogent Business & Management 5:1.
  33. Blanck, P., Perleth, S., Heidenreich, T., Kröger, P., Ditzen, B., Bents, H., & Mander, J. (2018). Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 102, 25–35.
  34. Woollett, K., & Maguire, E. A. (2011). Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes. Current biology : CB, 21(24), 2109–2114.
  35. Improved communication: Luberto, C., Shinday, M., Song, N., Philpotts, R., Park, L., Fricchione, L., & Yeh, E. (2018). A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Effects of Meditation on Empathy, Compassion, and Prosocial Behaviors. Mindfulness, 9(3), 708–724.
  36. Barnes, V., Bauza, L., and Treiber, F. (2003). Impact of stress reduction on negative school behaviour in adolescence. Health Qual. Life Outcomes 1:10. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-1-10


Everything that we do at Bettering Youth is backed by evidence, which is why we wanted to share with
you the research for which we have based our highly successful programmes on.

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